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Job Specification

It’s refer to a written statement of educational qualification, years of experience, KSAs, physical and personal characteristics and technical and communication skills, in order to perform job responsibilities and other sensory demands.

A job specification culminates from the job description, in the sense it depicts the qualifications, skill set, abilities, personality traits, and special requirements needed for a particular job.

There are several advantage of a job specification :-

  • Helps in finding the right candidate for the job.
  • Helps in enticing a candidate to consider a given job offer.
  • Helps in setting up core competencies of the organisation.
  • Helps in identifying the duties and competencies of the job profile.
  • Helps in directing the right candidate to the right profile by matching their qualifications and requirements as specified in the job description.

Therefore, it is important for job description and job specification to be clear, brief and comprehensible to avoid any conflicts.


***KSAs = Knowledge , Skills,  Abilities


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Job Description

It’s explain, why a job exists, the duties of the job holder, how does the job holder perform and in what condition. The use of job description primarily determine the format and style of the job.

Purpose of job description :

Job descriptions includes the detailed information on various aspects such as job titles, job duties, job summary, role and responsibilities, salary, benefits etc.

Job description has different application for different element in an organisation.

For HR Department –

  • Helps in matching the qualification and skills of the candidate with the job.
  • Helps in identify training needs , accumulating the resources for training and thereafter selecting the appropriate method of training as per the job.
  • Helps in establishing performance standards in terms of quality, quantity, time and cost.
  •  Helps in developing plans for future needs.
  • Helps in deciding the wages, salaries, and fringe benefits.
  • Helps in ensuring the equal pay and equal opportunities for everyone in the organisation.

For Employees –

  • Helps in assessing their career move in the organisation.
  • Helps in establishing their development goals.
  • Helps in understanding their role, duty and responsibilities of  job in the organisation.
  • Helps in matching their qualification with the ones set for a particular job.
  •  Helps in understanding the flow in the organisation.

For Manager/ Supervisor –

  • Helps in controlling the functioning of the organisation.
  • Helps in formulating performance plans.
  • Helps in hiring the most suitable candidates.
  • Helps in comparing the task performed by the employee with the job assigned.
  • Helps in clearly defining the work assignment of the job.

A job description should be written carefully in order to provide complete job details.

Some of the important things that should be kept in mind while writing the job description :

  • Educational & professional qualifications
  • Job location
  • Key responsibilities areas
  • Job titles and responsibilities
  • Hiring department
  • Reporting authority
  • Work environment

The job description must include the nature and scope of a job together with defining the responsibilities of a particular job and the degree of supervision. It should be specific, realistic, and concise.


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Job Analysis

Job analysis is referred to the process of collecting and analysis jobs to define the job responsibilities, requirement and the condition under which the job is to be performed.

Purpose and objective of job analysis

  • Recruitment and selection
  • Job evaluation
  • Job design
  • Compensation and benefits
  • Performance appraisal
  • Training and development
  • Compliance with labour law
  • Productivity

Time and motion studies or micro motion analysis can be used during  job analysis in order to decide on the time and motion for a particular job position.

Job Analysis mechanism-

There are three basic components of job analysis ,

1. Job content

Job content details the task, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.

2. Job requisites

Job requisites determine the educational qualification, skills, knowledge, abilities, and employee characteristics etc needed to perform the job content.

3. Job context

Job context defines situational as well as supporting details pertaining to a particular job.


Basic approaches to job analysis –

There are three fundamental approaches to job analysis.

  1. Job oriented approach
  2. Employee oriented approach
  3. Trait oriented approach

Job analysis details can be collected in various ways, there are five commonly used data collection methods in organisation-

  1. Job performance
  2. Personal observation
  3. Long and critical incidents technique
  4. Interview
  5. Questionnaire methods

It is the job analyst who decides on the method or methods to be used for data collection on the basis of performance appraisal, recruitment and selection.

Job analyst monitors the employee’s job performance, what activities are performed and at what speed under what working conditions, etc.

Sometimes employees are given a structural questionnaire to elicit their job functions and submit the completed questionnaire to their supervisors.

Nowadays, the hr managers have begun to focus on individual oriented approaches, like behavior, event interviews and critical incident reporting to find out the skill sets and behaviors required to perform a particular job, such occupational needs are termed as competencies.

A competency is referred to as the core characteristic of an individual leading to effective performance. Common characteristics of competency include motives, traits, knowledge, self concept, skills etc.

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Strategic Human Resource Management

Strategic human resource management has linkage of strategic business plans with the human resource objectives towards the development of human resources management for enriching performance, its a continual activity based on continuous adjustment of three key interdependent aspects: the value of top management, the environment and existing resources.

In the contemporary world of the business, there are number of challenges being faced by multinational corporations on account of rising and aggressive competition, this seeks change to be made in the human resources processes as well as traditional human resources management  methods.

Strategic human resource management cannot be implemented without the involvement and support of top level management in any organisation.

In some of organisations, the human resources department are recruited personnel with no human resource management experience or background, which create a big obstacle in shifting to strategic human resource management.

As an employee gains knowledge and experience over the years, they become more valuable to the organisation and strategic human resource management today looks much beyond the regular data entries, filing and such other monotonous job activities. It is largely focused on cross culture issues, corporate culture changes, and on the rise of developing countries.

The strategic human resource management is the pillar strength for corporate culture change. Where an organisation needs to be as cost effective as it could by cutting down on business expenditures and manufacturing products at lowest possible cost, and yet offering the consumers the best products at affordable rates. The change of consumer mind set influences the corporate culture change. The purchasing power of consumer never be ignored, whether the consumer lives in India, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, china  or any other developing countries. This is way the organisation tends to change their business plans and become multinational. Such development poses challenge to strategic human resource management.

Strategic human resource management play a pivotal role when its come to managing employees in developing as well as developed countries the most tactfully. It has been design in such that companies can cater to the needs of their existing employees the best possible way, while also fostering the company objectives.

It is indeed the fact that human resource management deals with multifaceted business aspects that have a direct bearing on the employees, such as compensation, benefits, administration, hiring and firing , training and orientation, provision of pay incentives, vacation or sick days, and safety procedure details.

Strategic human resource management proactively directs and manage people, and therefore, it seeks planning different ways  to better act on the needs of the employees and other things.

Strategic human resource management is the ultimate solution to achieve organisational productivity, Planning ahead for the betterment of the employees helps in enriching the retention rate of skilled employees and hence, reducing the expenditures incurred on recruiting and training of new employees.


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