Job analysis is referred to the process of collecting and analysis jobs to define the job responsibilities, requirement and the condition under which the job is to be performed.
Purpose and objective of job analysis–
- Recruitment and selection
- Job evaluation
- Job design
- Compensation and benefits
- Performance appraisal
- Training and development
- Compliance with labour law
Time and motion studies or micro motion analysis can be used during job analysis in order to decide on the time and motion for a particular job position.
Job Analysis mechanism-
There are three basic components of job analysis ,
1. Job content –
Job content details the task, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.
2. Job requisites –
Job requisites determine the educational qualification, skills, knowledge, abilities, and employee characteristics etc needed to perform the job content.
3. Job context –
Job context defines situational as well as supporting details pertaining to a particular job.
Basic approaches to job analysis –
There are three fundamental approaches to job analysis.
- Job oriented approach
- Employee oriented approach
- Trait oriented approach
Job analysis details can be collected in various ways, there are five commonly used data collection methods in organisation-
- Job performance
- Personal observation
- Long and critical incidents technique
- Questionnaire methods
It is the job analyst who decides on the method or methods to be used for data collection on the basis of performance appraisal, recruitment and selection.
Job analyst monitors the employee’s job performance, what activities are performed and at what speed under what working conditions, etc.
Sometimes employees are given a structural questionnaire to elicit their job functions and submit the completed questionnaire to their supervisors.
Nowadays, the hr managers have begun to focus on individual oriented approaches, like behavior, event interviews and critical incident reporting to find out the skill sets and behaviors required to perform a particular job, such occupational needs are termed as competencies.
A competency is referred to as the core characteristic of an individual leading to effective performance. Common characteristics of competency include motives, traits, knowledge, self concept, skills etc.